com. tions, quite ats of er 15, ‘ganic ter 19 umin-

in his in in the apter, letec-

lysis. ganic

as so Luter


OCTOBER, 1880.


(“ Liquor Acidi Phosphorici,” “Liquor Acidi Phosphorici Comp.”)

By James T. SHINN.

In the Philadelphia ‘* Medical Times,” Aug. 14th, 1880, is a paper by Dr. Wm. Pepper on the administration of Phosphoric Acid, in which the use of Horsford’s Acid Phosphates is spoken of and its stated composition given, and two other preparations, with titles as above, are recommended as worthy of extended trial. Their com- ponent parts are mentioned, but not the manipulation in preparing them. The formulas are as follows:

* Liquor Acidi Phosphorici (without Iron).

R Calcii phosphat., grs. iii; or for Oi, 384 grains. Magnesii phosphat., gts. ii; “256 Potassii phosphat., iss ; “192 Syrupy phosphoric acid, MV; 640 minims. Aquz, q. s. ft. fZi; pint. Liquor Acidi Phosphorici Comp. (with Iron).

R Calcii phosphat., gts. iii; or for Oi, 384 grains. Magnesii phosphat., gr. 64 Potassii phosphat., gr. 43 sa 32 Ferri phosphat., gr. 64 Syrupy phos. acid, m vi 3; 816 minims Aqua, q. s. ft. pint

The syrupy phosphoric acid used contains about 60 per cent. of glacial acid, and is furnished by the chemists and druggists for manu- facturing purposes.

As some pharmacists may have calls for the preparations in limited quantities and might not have all the phosphates in stock, a ready pro- cess by which they can be made in any apothecary shop is desirable. The bone phosphate of lime is not entirely soluble in phosphoric acid, and can readily be made from the carbonate: in 156 parts are 72 parts phosphoric acid and 84 parts lime, which latter are equivalent to 150

N. esley of a w of t the nion 7 oyd. dies | ican who tion | ited ces 5 | n of cist | een a ited | has ned | nce 31 |

482 Acid Phosphates. im,

parts carbonate of calcium. The phosphate of magnesium consists of 72 parts acid and 60 parts of magnesia in every 132 parts of the phos- phate. In 175°4 parts of phosphate of potassium are 72 parts acid and 94°4 parts caustic potash=138°4 of carbonate. The officinal phos- phate of iron, which is always kept on hand, is freely soluble in diluted phosphoric acid, and may be added direct. From these proportions the following formula for a pint of each solution is deduced:

Liquor Acidi Phosphorici.

Carbonate of calcium, 369 grains (156:150::384: ote) Magnesia (calc.), 116 60::256:116) Carbonate of potassium, 665 in combination: Syrupy phos. acid (60 pr.ct.)1721 { m, free.

Water, sufficient to make 1 pint.

Liquor Acidi Phosph. Comp. Carbonate of calcium, 369 grains (156: 150:: 384: 369) Magnesia (calcined), 29 (132: 60:: 64: 29) Carbonate of potassium, 25 (175°4:138'4:: 32: 25°2) Phosphate of iron, 64 * Syrupy phos. acid(6opr.ct.)1705 Water, sufficient to make 1 pint.

Mix the acid with half a pint of water, add the phosphate of iron and stir until dissolved (for liq. ac. phos. comp.), then add gradually the carbonates of calcium, stirring until effervescence ceases and the freshly- formed phosphate is dissolved, and finally add the magnesia and car- bonate of potassium; stir until dissolved, and make up the measure to one pint with water. On standing for several days a slight precipitate occurs, which may be prevented by slightly increasing the amount of acid.

The whole can be prepared in half an hour, less time than required to send to another druggist for it, and at a cost of less than 40 cents a pint, while Horsford’s Acid Phosphate, at $4.00 a dozen, will cost about go cents per pint. Besides securing a larger profit, the phar- macist will have the satisfaction of dispensing a preparation of whose composition he is sure and of his own production, and the physician. will get what he prescribes.

These preparations taste about as acid as Horsford’s, and do not vary much in specific gravity, liq. acid. phos. being 170% liq. acid phos. comp., 1°125 and Horsford’s 1°121.

In Dr. Pepper’s calculation as to the comparative otdlep between

| | f | | 4 | | i | |

. Pharm. 1880,

ists of phos- acid phos- iluted is the

1 and the shly- car- e to itate it of

lired its a cost har- hose


vary hos.


Glycerole of Cinchona.

his solutions and dilute phosphoric acid he seems to have overlooked the fact that a minim of the syrupy acid weighs much more than a grain, its specific gravity being about 1°700; and taking one ounce of glacial acid in 12} fluidounces of diluted acid as the basis of calcula- tion, it will be found that his preparations really contain rather more free phosphoric acid than similar volumes of the officinal dilute acid, though the difference will be probably of no importance in practice.

GLYCEROLE OF CINCHONA. By Frep. Loos., Jr., Pu.c. From an Inaugural Essay.

Although there are numerous liquid preparations of the cinchona barks there appear to be none which, for any length of time, remain perfect and reliable; they become more or less turbid, and in most cases a precipitate forms.

As this deposit is generally that extractive portion of the bark which contains a large percentage of its alkaloids, and therefore the part which is most sought after in medicine, it is evident that a large pro- portion of its active qualities are lost, and what the physician supposes is doing his patient the most good is ornamenting the sides of the “shop bottle” in some modern “palace of pharmacy.” It seems that the solvents used in making the officinal preparations of the cinchona barks have not the power to hold in solution the above-mentioned principle, and on that account in a short time the liquids lose their transparency, and become cloudy.

Glycerin is not only an excellent solvent and preservative, but its blandness and agreeable taste render it acceptable in many cases where an alcoholic or vinous preparation is objectionable. By using glycerin I find that a beautiful preparation of cinchona can be made, which effectually holds in solution the extractive portion of the bark, and its clearness or quality is not affected in the least by age. In this respect I think it surpasses the present Extractum Cinchone Fluidum of the U. S. P., for in it there is invariably a very heavy deposit. Therefore, this fluid extract, which should and could be a very good one, has fallen almost entirely out of use.

The same complaint can be made of tinctura cinchonz and tinctura cinchone comp., so much used at present and prescribed by physicians


\ 4 > NS een ; |

484 Glycerole of Cinchona. a.

The glycerole of cinchona, of which I am now about to speak, is a dense but very clear liquid, each fluidounce of which represents a troy- ounce of the bark; and, as there is not the slightest deposit of any kind, it contains all the virtues of the bark, coupled with those of the glycerin, The glycerole of cinchona rubra is a very dense liquid, of a rich, deep garnet color, while the glycerole of cinchona calisaya is considerably lighter in color and not so dense; this is evidently on account of the much greater quantity of extractive matter in cinchona succirubra.

As the process for making the glycerole of either cinchona succi- rubra or cinchona calisaya is exactly the same, one formula will suffice.

Take of Cinchona bark, in moderately-fine powder, . 16 troyounces

Mix the liquids, and macerate the cinchona for five days, then pack in a conical glass percolator and displace with a menstruum composed of two parts of alcohol and one of water. Collect first twelve ounces and set aside, then continue percolation to exhaustion. Distil off the alcohol, or evaporate until reduced to 43 ounces, and when cold mix with the first 12 fluidounces; allow to stand a few days, and filter.

As stated above, each fluidounce of this preparation represents one troyounce of the bark, and therefore each teaspoonful represents 60 grains. Sixty grains of cinchona bark being rather a large dose, and one which is seldom prescribed, 1 have made a glycerole just half the strength, and find it equally as fine and much more convenient for prescribing. The process is the same as the one previously given, with the excep- tion that in this case only one-half the quantity of cinchona bark is used, and therefore each teaspoonful ‘represents but 30 grains of the bark, which is much nearer the average dose than the former.

The glycerole of cinchona is so intensely bitter that I have endeav- ored, by the use of licorice and several aromatics, to make a com- pound which, to some extent at least, would be pleasing to the taste; and, by compounding this with an equal bulk of the glycerole of cin- chona, quite an agreeable mixture can be made.

Aromatic Glycerole of Licorice.

Take of Licorice root, in fine powder, - 2 troyounces Cinnamon, in fine powder, ° 1 ad Cloves, anise and caraway in fine powder, sulle 2 drachms Glycerin, 4 troyounces

Am isto." } Absorption of Moisture by Glycerin. 485

Oct., 1880,

Mix the drugs, and having moistened them with the glycerin and quantity sufficient of the diluted alcohol, pack in a conical percolator and displace with a menstrum of dilute alcohol; set aside the first three ounces, and continue percolation until exhausted. Evaporate until reduced to one fluidounce, and when cold mix with first percolate, and

filter. Aromatic Glycerole of Cinchona.

Take equal bulks of glycerole of cinchona and aromatic glycerole of licorice ; mix them, and filter if necessary.

Any of the above-mentioned glyceroles can be reduced to any desired strength by diluting with a menstruum composed of two parts of alco- hol and one of water. Should the reduced preparation show any inclina- tion to precipitate, it is advisable to add a small portion of glycerin to the menstruum used in making the dilution.

QUILLAIA TOOTHWASH. By ALEXANDER E. BENNETT, PuH.G. From an Essay on the Uses of Glycerin.

An excellent toothwash containing glycerin is made as follows:

Take of Soap bark, ground, 402. Glycerin, 3 oz. Diluted alcohol, - sufficient for 2 pints

Oil of gaultheria, oil of peppermint, each, 20 drops

Macerate the soap bark in the mixture of g vcerin and diluted alcohol

for three or four days, and filter through a little magnesia previously triturated with the volatile oils.

Thus made, a much better preparation is obtained than by macerat-

ing the bark in the dilute alcohol, and adding the glycerin afterwards.

ABSORPTION OF MOISTURE BY GLYCERIN.' By Georce PH.G. From an Inaugural Essay.

The property possessed by glycerin of absorbing moisture is well known. To determine its rapidity under different circumstances the

following experiments were undertaken :

‘See also American Journal of Pharmacy,” 1879, p. 313 and 513.

is a Toy~ ‘ind, erin, Jeep ably the CCi- | ice, ack sed ces the nix ne ns. ich th, ig. is | he . 4

486 The New Antidote to Arsenic. {A™-

I. 100 grams of glycerin, spec. grav. 1°25, were placed in each of four vessels of about the capacity of 200 cubic centimeters and of the diameters given in the table. These vessels were placed in the damp atmosphere of the cellar, September 1st, and weighed monthly.

Weight. Monthly Increase.

Diameter. ~ Oct. 1. Now. 1. Dec. 1. Jan.1. Oct. Nov. Dec. Jan,

2°5cm. 102 gm. 103'7gm. gm. 10471 gm. 2°0 ‘1 perct. 570: 116 118° 119°25 122° 2°75

7°5 135 138.5 142°7 147°5 35° 35 42 48

10°0 150 152°7 155°25 158°5 50° 3°25 3°25

2. 100 grams of glycerin, spec. grav. 1°25, in a vessel 5 cm. in diameter and of 200 cc. capacity, and 100 grams of distilled water in another vessel of the same size and shape, were placed in a large jar which was then closely covered. On weighing the vessels monthly, the glycerin had increased and the water decreased, as shown by the

table. Weight.

‘Oct. Nov. Dec. Jan. Oct. Nov. Dec. Jan. Glycerin, 108 gm. 132° gm. 114° gm. 115°7 gm. Increase,8° pret. Water, 90 82°5 75°5 68°3 Decréase, 10° 7°5 7°2


In the Journat for August, p. 430, a formula is given for the pre- paration of the hydrated sesquioxide of iron, which Dr. McCaw recom- _mends in preference to all others for two reasons, viz.: it forms the surest antidote, and the ingredients are always accessible. By consulting the: formula the reader will see that the second reason is plain, and it was for the purpose of testing the accuracy of the first reason that the following: experiment was conducted. I prepared the antidote as directed by mixing the bicarbonate of sodium and the water and adding the tincture of iron;. the mixture was placed on a filter and allowed to drain for a short time when a thick magma was left. A small quantity of this magma was. mixed with a solution of arsenic containing half a grain and, after stirring the mixture and filtering, not a trace of arsenic could be discovered in the filtered liquid by sulphuretted hydrogen, or by Marsh’s test, thus demonstrating that the formula in question produces an antidote, which

is among the surest, if indeed, not the surest of all antidotes,

<< Pharmaceutical Notes. 487

While on the subject of antidotes to arsenic, I was induced to try the efficacy of the hydrate of magnesium recommended as an antidote by Bussy, though disapproved by others (U. S. Dispensatory, 14th ed., p. 30). The National Dispensatory, 2d ed., p. 887, states: ‘* As an antidote to arsenious acid freshly precipitated magnesia ranks next in value to freshly prepared sesquioxide of iron.” I dissolved about an ounce of sulphate of magnesium in a little water, gently warming the mixture. Water of ammonia was then added in slight excess and the mixture placed on a filter -and allowed to drain. A portion of the magma left on the filter was mixed with a solution of arsenic; as in the experiment with the sesquioxide of iron, after stirring the mixture and filtering, Marsh’s test gave not the slightest evidence of arsenic in the filtered liquid, thus showing that the hydrate of magnesium freshly prepared is an excellent antidote to arsenic, and possesses also the advantages claimed by Dr. McCaw for the sesquioxide of iron, viz.: that the ingredients, epsom salts and hartshorn are not only on hand in the apothecary shop but are frequently kept in the family, thereby insuring the preparation of the antidote in time.

Newcomerstown, O., August 20th, 1880.


Duboisina, Eserina, Pilecarpina.—Thinking that perhaps a concise account of these alkaloids, derived from various journals, persunal observation and other sources, might be of some interest, I have col- lected as much information as I could concerning them.

Duboisina is obtained from an Australian tree-like shrub of the natural order solanacez, an order furnishing several powerfully poison- ous and narcotic active principles. It bears a close resemblance to atropia and hyoscyamia, yet differs from them in several particulars. According to Mr. Gerrard it possesses greater neutralizing power than atropia and is more soluble in water. When heated with strong sul- phuric acid a disagreeable odor results, resembling butyric acid, whilst atropia treated in the same manner yields a pleasant aroma. The sul- phate is the salt most used and is deliquescent. The alkaloid as obtained at present is a viscous extract-like mass, apparently uncrystallizable. Its therapeutic effects are similar to those of atropia, but more quickly appear and disappear. Dilation of the pupil is quickly produced by

harm of the mp in in jar Y> he \ te

488 Pharmaceutical Notes.

solution of the sulphate of duboisina, and a solution containing 4 grains to the ounce has been known to produce dizziness in a few minutes after application to the eye. Like the active principle of the belladonna, duboisina also has the power of arresting or controiling profuse per- spiration, and can be used with decided effect for this purpose when injected hypodermically, ,; of a grain being usually sufficient.

_ Eserina is obtained from the Calabar bean and appears to represent the active principles of that substance. It is obtained by treating the powdered beans with alcohol, acidulated with tartaric acid, evaporating the solution to an extractive consistence, dissolving this in cold water, filtering to separate resinous substances, agitating with ether, removing the ether and adding bicarbonate of potassium in slight excess to the aqueous solution, agitating again with ether, which will now take up the liberated eserina and upon spontaneous evaporation will yield the alkaloid. When pure it crystallizes in thin rhombic plates, nearly white, or of a slightly rosy tint. The sulphate is very deliquescent. Its solutions are characterized by becoming red upon addition of an alkali, or if heated with ammonia and evaporated to dryness a beauti- fully blue coloring substance is produced, which is very soluble in water. It to this an acid is added a dichroic liquid is produced, being violet by transmitted light and carmine red by refracted light. Eserina sulphate, in solution, is used as an application to the eyes and produces contrac- tion. The strength of the solution is generally 1 part to 1,000 or to 800, and as it rapidly alters, soon becoming red, it should be made only in small quantities. A solution in glycerin might possibly keep better. The physiological action of eserina is antagonistic to belladonna. The alkaloid has been used with success in cases of poisoning by the latter drug.

Pilocarpina, the active principle of jaborandi, is obtained by adding an alkali to an aqueous solution of the alcoholic extract, agitating with chloroform and evaporating. It appears to be uncrystallizable, is an oily, light-yellow liquid. It forms, however, crystallizable salts with a number of acids; composition, according to Kingzett, C,,H,,N,O,. The salt most used is the hydrochlorate, which occurs in white, feath- ery crystals and is very deliquescent. Solutions of this salt generally produce contraction of the pupil when applied to the eye, unaccom- panied by irritation, on which account it may replace the use of eserina in some cases. Hypodermically injected in doses of from } to }a grain it produces profuse perspiration and salivation, and can replace

| |

| |


| i i

q q


‘Am. ‘our. Pharm. The Resin of Leptandra. 489

Oct., 1880.

the administration of jaborandi by the mouth with the advantage that, when thus used, it does not cause nausea. Its action on the skin is more prompt and certain than that of the piant, owing probably to varieties of jaborandi containing variable proportions of the alkaloid, in the same manner that quinia is found more reliable than Peruvian bark. Pilocarpina is antagonistic in effect to atropia and corrects the dryness of the throat and mouth, which occurs when preparations of bella- donna are used. One peculiar effect it possesses is that, when its solutions are applied to the eye, only near objects can be observed. © Dried Salts—The inconvenience attending the dispensing of such salts as contain considerable proportions of water, when prescribed in the form of powders, has led me to dry several of such as are in most common use, namely: Sulphate of magnesium, sulphate of sodium, phosphate of sodium and sulphite of sodium, which were dried below 120°F., and after being kept near that temperature for four or five days

and finding that they ceased to lose weight I found that 400 grains of sulphate of magnesium were reduced to 355 grains.

400 sodium = te * 400 phosphate of sodium om.

Therefore, if 40 grains of sulphate of magnesium is called for in powder, they can be replaced by 354 grains of the dried salt, 40 grains of phosphate of sodium by 23% grains dried; 40 grains of sulphate of sodium by 18 grains dried, and 40 grains of sulphite of sodium by 22 grains dried. Having so often met with difficulty in reducing the undried salts to fine powder I thought that the above information might be of some service to others.


Read at the twenty-eighth meeting of the American Pharmaceutical Association at Saratoga, and communicated by the author.

Leptandrin of commerce varies in appearance from two reasons :

1. Different fineness of powder.

2. Difference in composition.

If an alcoholic tincture of Leptandra Virginica be evaporated to the consistence of a thick syrup and this be poured into cold water a black tarry substance separates. This, if washed with pure cold water, finally becomes tasteless, and, if it be dried, constitutes the article

80, | rains utes nna, per- hen sent the ting iter, jing the the arly | an uti- ter. by ite, ac- to nly er. ‘he | ter ing an | Dus h- lly n- na | a ce |

490 The Resin of Leptandra.

above named. This has a deep black color and breaks with a shiny fracture. It resembles much in appearance asphaltum. The powder produced from it varies in color in accordance with its fineness, becom- ing of lighter shade as comminution progresses. This is the main reason for the difference in the color of the resin (by resin is understood the precipitate before mentioned), and it may cause powders from the same lump to vary considerably.’

Sensible Properties.—If the precipitate of which I have been speaking were Leptandrin of commerce” there would be no very remarkable difference in the appearance of the various lots. The odor would be the same and all specimens tasteless, or nearly so. There is.no officinal process for making ‘“ Resin of leptandra.” There is no preparation recognized by the Pharmacopoeia under the name of J/eptandrin. The question arises: Is leptandrin of commerce the powdered resin- to which article the name was originally applied by Wm. S. Merrell? In my opinion the majority of physicians who use ‘“ leptandrin” do not recognize the resin as the active principle of the root. Why should

we take it for granted that manufacturers prepare the articie, labeled leptandrin, by precipitation of the resinous substances? Prof. John King did not make his original preparation from the root of Leptandra Virginica in this manner. He informs me that he forms his opinion of the therapeutical value of Leptandra Virginica from the use of a mix- ture, dried of aqueous and of alcoholic extracts. |

Resin (?) of Leptandra, or \eptandrin, was discovered by Wm. S. Merrell about 1850. We may well suppose that the value of podo- phyllum resin (podophyllin) and the object of improvement led Mr. Merrell to the precipitation of the resin of leptandra and to the suppo- sition that it (the resin) would prove to be the medicinal principle of Leptandra Virginica. This latter is admitted to have been a mistake, for very few eclectic physicians desire the resin, and the best authorities have decided against it.

1 am of the opinion, furthermore, that very little of the ‘* Leptandrin of commerce” is the resin, and that the difference in ‘* sensible proper-

ties” of various lots may be ascribed to difference of composition. Manufacturers desire to prepare the best representative of the root, and as the resin fails to answer, they seek for other principles and other

1Seven samples, powdered from one piece and sifted through sieves of different fineness, were exhibited.

The Resin of Leptandra.

means of manipulation, and label the result “‘ Leptandrin.”? Thus, F conclude that: **The Leptandrin of commerce” varies much in appearance and in “sensible properties” from the fact that it is of dif- ferent degrees of fineness and of various compositions.

What is the best process for the preparation of the resin?” Resin of leptandra exists as such to the extent of six per cent. (average of 3,000 pounds) in well dried root of not less than one year’s age after collec- tion. It is a recognized fact, that the yield of resin increases with the- age and exposure of the root after collection where water, simply, is- employed as a precipitant, and for this reason the root of two or more years of age is desirable. If the powdered root be percolated with alcohol and the percolate evaporated to a syrupy consistence, and this. be poured into a larger quantity of cold water, a semi-solid substance settles. This, when well washed and dried, is the so-called resin. If the water which was used as a precipitant of the resin be examined it will be found very bitter, in consequence of the presence of the bitter principle, first noticed by Prof. E. S. Wayne (1856) and afterwards by: ~ Prof. F. F. Mayer (1863). The latter gentleman ascribed to it the properties of a glucoside, and I think his views will be supported. If five per cent. of sulphuric acid be mixed with the precipitating liquor after decantation from the resin, and the mixture be permitted to stand’ some weeks, the bitterness disappears, and a quantity of resin, similar in appearance to the original precipitate, is produced. If, however, the sulphuric acid and the precipitating liquid be mixed and then boiled to- gether from thirty to sixty minutes, the reduction takes place at once, the bitterness disappears and resin results as one product.”

This would indicate that the bitter principle is a glucoside,.and that the resin is a product of its decomposition, although I have not experi- mented regarding the corresponding production of glucose. That this. resin is thus formed in a considerable amount may be seen by specimen. shown, which is (12 lb.) the result of a 1,000 pound batch of leptandra. In making this lot the overlying liquid was simply decanted from the precipitate and it may have contained a small amount of mechanically

1 Leptandra is valued by many for its laxative properties. The principle which. imparts to the root this effect has never been identified. L.

? This cannot be taken as conclusively pointing to the formation of the resinous substance from the bitter principle. It may be that the resinous matter is held in a. state of minute suspension by the liquid, or even is in actual solution. The subse- quent manipulation with the acid solution may simply throw it down. _ L.

liny der in ain 0d the ing ble be | | on he to | [n ot ld f | |

492 The Resin of Leptandra. { Am. Jour. Pharm.

divided resin which refused to settle. From the foregoing it would be obvious, that if the object be to obtain the greatest possible yield of resin the best process will be to obtain resin from the glucoside also.

Formula.—Extract the root of leptandra (properly powdered) by means of alcohol. Evaporate the percolate to the consistence of a thick syrup, and pour the result, with stirring, into ten times its bulk of cold water; decant the supernatant liquid, add to it 5 per cent. of sulphuric acid, boil until the bitter taste disappears, and then wash separately the two resins with water and dry them, after which mix and powder them. To dry the precipitated resin, place in a vessel and expose, with frequent stirring, to a steam bath until it is of such a con- sistence as to break when cold; then break it into small pieces, and finish the drying by exposing to the air. The resinous substance obtained by means of sulph:uric acid may be dried by simple exposure to the air. According to many authorities resin of leptandra is inert. i am decidedly in favor of a dried alcoholic extract, although such must ‘contain a considerable amount of glucose, which exists in the root in large amount, and is extracted by alcohol to a considerable extent. The trouble experienced in drying an alcoholic extract (recorded by Dr. T. L. A. Greve) without the use of foreign substances, and with full preservation of its characteristics, renders its preparation by ordi- nary methods tedious and somewhat difficult. I have no trouble with leptandra when I pursue the following process :

Extractum Leptandra Alcoholicum.—Precipitate the evaporated alco- holic extract by means of water in the manner before directed, and evaporate the liquid to the consistence of a thick solid extract. Dry the resin, powder it, and stir this powder into the solid extract and thoroughly incorporate them. The thick mass is then to be picked into small pieces, spread in layers in a drying closet and dried by a cur- rent of warm air, then powdered. From the foregoing preparation the full effects of leptandra root may be expected.

It will be noticed that I use the dry resin as an absorbant instead of carbonate of magnesium or other extraneous substance. This, or a similar preparation, might well be recognized by our Pharmacopczia. The preparations which are sold under the name of leptandrin con- stitute an important article of commerce, second, among the so-called resinoids, only to resin of podophy!lum (podophyllin). Dried alcoholic extract of leptandra differs to such an extent from the precipitated resin, which was named “leptandrin” by its discoverer, Mr. W. S. Merrell,

am jour. } Chemical Notes. 493

as to forbid their substitution for each other, If the resin be rubbed with distilled water, and the mixture be then poured upon a filter- paper, the filtrate will be colorless, almost tasteléss, and free from bit- terness. Under the same conditions the filtrate from the dried extract is dark colored and very bitter.

Resin of leptandra will never run together at ordinary temperatures nor in any atmosphere. On the contrary, extract of leptandra upon

_exposure to a moist atmosphere, or if not well dried, will run into a

hard lump. The yield of dry extract, made by the process I suggest, will average 10 per cent. of the weight of the root employed.


By Pror. Samue P. SapT.er, Pu.D.

Inorganic Chemistry.— On the Atomic Weight and General Charac- ters of the New Elements Ytterbium and Scandium.—Nilson, the dis- coverer of the latter of these two claimants for recognition as elements, has worked up some 9} kilograms of the rare mineral euxenite, and has extracted therefrom the mixed oxides of the rare earths. He con- siders that there are seven of these earths, viz.: Scandia, ytterbia, thulia, erbia, terbia, a new earth provisionally designated by Soret as X (holmia), and yttria. Prof. Cleve, the discoverer of thulium and, inde- pendently with Soret, of holmium, extracted these mixed earths at the same time from 15 kilos of gadolinite, so that the two investigators. had 6 to 7 kilos of the rare earths to divide between them, which was done by Prof Nilson undertaking the study of ytterbium, scan- dium and holmium, while Prof. Cleve retained the earths erbia and thulia. After a long and tedious purification of the ytterbia he was enabled to get it perfectly free from other earths and determined the atomic weight of the element. The mean of seven determinations was 173°01. Ytterbia, Yb,O,, is a white, very heavy and infusible

‘powder, which is slowly attacked by acids in the cold or at a gentle

heat; at a boiling temperature, however, is readily dissolved by dilute: acids. Its solutions are colorless and show no absorption spectrum. Its sp. gr. is g°175. Its solutions have a very sweet and yet astringent taste. It gives no flame coloration, but the spark spectrum of its chloride contains a large number of characteristic lines.

Four determinations of the atomic weight of scandium were made, the mean of which was 44°03. Scandia, Sc,O,, is a white, loose

a be of by ilk of sh | : ce ist in it. by th li- th ad ry id ed ne of a a. ic ny

494 Chemical Notes. powder, infusible and possessing much similarity to glucina or magnesia, ‘The earth has a sp. gr. of 3°864. It does not impart any color to the flame, although the spark spectrum of its chloride is particularly fine, containing more than 100 bright lines. A number of its salts have been prepared and are described by Nilson.— Berichte der Chem. Ges., xili, pp. 1430 and 1439.

On the New Elements Thulium and Holmium.—Cleve has studied the thulia, extracted from the mixture of rare earths, sufficiently to be able to describe it more fully. Both the oxide and its salts are uncolored, like those of ytterbium, but its solutions show in the spectroscope two absorption rays, which do not appear in the spectrum of pure erbia. The atomic weight of thulium is approximately 170°7 if we accept for the oxide the formula Tm,O,. Soret has studied and figures the spec- tra of the several rare earths of the yttria group. Besides erbium he identifies the earth first noted by himself, under the designation X, and afterwards independently discovered by Cleve, and named by him hol- mium, which name Soret now accepts, an earth designated as Y/ by Marignac, and independently discovered by Lecoq de Boisbaudran and named by him samarium ; and lastly didymium.—Comptes Rendus, No. 91, pp. 328 and 378.

Organic Chemistry.— Crystallized Oxalic Acid.—A. Villiers describes the preparation of crystallized anhydrous oxalic acid. It may be obtained by dissolving 1 part of the ordinary acid in about 12 parts of warm concentrated sulphuric acid, and allowing the solution to stand for several days. The anhydrous acid is deposited in remarkably trans- _ parent, voluminous crystals of the form of the octahedra, with a rhom- bic base, generally modified by the face p of the primary prism, with a cleavage parallel to this face. When exposed to the air the crystals take up two molecules of water and fall to powder.— Four. Chem. Sac., August, p. 544.

Behavior of Starch with Glycerin.—Sulkowsky records the observa- tion that starch is dissolved with ease by hot glycerin, and hereby becomes changed into the soluble condition. If some 60 grams pul- verized starch are stirred in 1 kilogram concentrated glycerin and the whole heated in a porcelain dish, with continued stirring, there occurs at first a strong swelling up of the starch granules, After some steam has escaped and the mass is heated to 130°C., the consistency increases $0 considerably that the stirring requires considerable exertion. The starch granules have changed mto an amorphous mass, and a trans-


Am. Jour. Sharm. Chemical Notes. 495

parent paste results. When the temperature is raised to 170°C. the mass becomes quite fluid again and the starch is entirely dissolved. At a temperature of 190°C., when the glycerin begins to escape in thick fumes, the starch is almost completely changed into the soluble modi- fication. If this glycerin solution, when cold, be poured into water, what unchanged starch remains separates as paste and can be filtered off from the solution of the other modification. From this filtrate strong alcohol will precipitate the soluble starch. The author finds that while potato-starch is changed quite easily into the soluble modification ; wheat-starch requires an hour’s heating to 180 to 190°C., and rice-starch even at the end of that time is only incompletely changed.—Ber. der Chem. Ges , xiii, p. 1395.

Action of Zinc Chloride upon Monobromated Camphor. —Schiff finds that if a mixture of zinc chloride and bromated camphor be heated to about 150 to 160°C. in an oil-bath streams of hydrogen bromide escape, and if after the reaction is ended the mixture be distilled over the naked flame a fluid is obtained, which consists chiefly of two substances—a hydrocarbon and a phenol. These can be easily separated by shaking with potash solution. The hydrocarbon boils at 137°6°C., and analysis shows it to be a hexahydro-xylol, C,H,,.

The phenol possesses the formula C,,H,,O and is a colorless viscid fluid. It boils at 231 to 233°C., and appears to be a liquid thymol and indeed the same as that obtained by Kekule by the action of iodine upon camphor. It is formed according to the following reaction :

C, H,, BOO HBr = C,, H,,O Bromated camphor. Thymol. —Ibid., p. 1407.

Investigation of Picrotoxin (from Menispermum cocculus).—Barth and Kretschy have separated by fractional crystallization from benzol and afterwards from water three constituents of picrotoxin, viz.: Picrotoxin, picrotin and anamirtin, and in the relative proportions of 32: 66: 2. Picrotoxin has a fusing-point 201°C., reduces silver nitrate, especially on addition of ammonia and Fehling’s solution, when heated. It is exceptionally bitter and very poisonous. The result of numerous analyses gives as its formula C,,H,,O+H,O. Picrotin is more difficultly soluble in benzol, fuses at 250 to 251°C. ; shows nearly the same pro- perties, but is not poisonous. Its composition is C,,H,,O,,, with vary- ing amount of water of crystallization. Anamirtin is founa in the mother-liquors of the pure picrotoxin when crystallized out of water. It


the ne, ave the

ble ed,

wo for ec- he ind ol- by nd Jo. bes

be of ind ns- m- ith als es by ul- he. urs am : ses he 1S- 3

496 Chemical Notes. -has a neutral reaction, does not reduce ammoniacal silver solution, nor Fehling’s copper solution, has almost no bitter taste and is not poi- sonous. ‘I’he analyses correspond nearly to the formula C,,H,,O,, Ibid., p. 1243.

Resin from Rosewood.—Terreil and Wolff have studied the resin from rosewood. It has a brilliant black color with a brown reflection, a vitreous fracture and a balsamic odor ; its sp. gr. at 15°C. is 1°2662, and it melts at g5°C. It dissolves in all proportions in alcohol, but is less soluble in ether, chloroform and carbon disulphide and _is insoluble in water.

Soda and potash dissolve the resin, forming brown-colored solutions, from which it is again separated in brown flakes on adding an acid; on boiling the solution an odor resembling benzaldehyde and hawthorn is evolved. Sulphuric acid also dissolves the resin with a blood-red color ; by adding water the resin is precipitated without alteration. When treated with nitric acid it yields an acid of an urange color, crystallizing in needles. On distillation white vapors are evolved at first, having an odor resembling those from gum-benzoin, but containing no benzoic acid, then an essential oil passes over and finally tarry matters. Its analysis corresponds with the formula C,,H,,O,; it forms salts with lead and barium. By extracting other colored woods, such as amaranth wood, iron wood, ebony, etc., with alcohol, resins resembling that from rosewood are obtained, but not in so large a proportion; rosewood yields 35 per cent. of its weight of resin.— Four. Chem. Soc., August, P- 559-

Technical Chemistry.—Fa/se Vermilion.—A German paper cautions the public against a false vermilion placed extensively on the market, which may be detected as follows: The false vermilion has too bright and brilliant a color, and consists chiefly of red lead with a very small per- centage of eosine. This last color may be extracted by means of strong alcohol and the red lead remains.— ‘Jour. of App. Science, August 2, p. 123. 4 New Substitute for Ivory, etc.—A new substitute for ivory, coral, leather, caoutchouc, etc., lately patented in England under the name of vegetaline, is prepared as follows: Cellulose (woody fibre) from any source whatever is treated with sulphuric acid of 58°B. (=sp. gr.1°676), at 15°C. (=59°F.), then washed with water to remove excess of acid, dried and converted into a fine powder. This is mixed with resin soap in a mortar, and the soda of the soap is removed by treatment with sulphate

= ~ a

Am Jour-gsa | Pill Coating at the Dispensing Counter. 497

of aluminum. The mass is now collected, dried again and pressed into cakes by hydraulic pressure. These cakes are then cut into thin plates, which are shaped by again subjecting them to pressure. By adding castor-oil or glycerin to the mass before pressure the product may be made transparent. Colors may be imparted by the use of vegetable coloring agents. Facts respecting the strength‘and elasticity of this product are wanting.—Jbid., August 2, p. 123.


By W. B. THompson.

If the pharmacist would be rescued from the thraldom imposed by the manufacturer, and rise again from the grade of a peddlar to the dignity of a factor aud compounder, he must, by his own ingenuity, devise the means to remove his present abasement. In order to regain his prestige, instead of being the mere vendor of the products of others, he must originate and present his own. The manufacturer has ruth- lessly invaded the domain of the pharmacist, and despoiled him of much that should characterize the importance and dignity of his calling. The pharmacist should invoke to his aid his natural allies, the physician and the public, and all who are’ conscientiously interested in the freshness, purity and integrity of medicine, to enable him to banish from his slielves and repositories the degenerate coated pill, with all its numer- ous congeners in diversified shapes, which have insidiously effected an entrance into the realm of modern pharmacy. So long as fashion demands a4 coating upon pills let it be of the least objectionable char- acter, and let such coating be applied extemporaneously, and let the material to be thus enveloped be likewise prepared extempvraneously— at the time it is needed for use—never before—and let the virtue of medicine in pill-form be characterized by its utility, and not, as is now too often the case, be exposed to the risk of failure and worthlessness in order to serve the pecuniary interests of those manufacturers who have, by means of a credulous medical profession and a confiding pub- lic, succeeded in successfully reaching the